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Thermal management system for lithium ion battery

Time:2021-01-16 Views:130

  Due to the revolutionary impact of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) on the entire world's economic and technological development, their inventor won the 2019 Nobel Prize. At the same time, lithium-ion batteries are rapidly becoming an important part of the power grid and electric vehicle energy storage and power transmission systems. The development speed of lithium-ion batteries is accelerating. They are used in small electronic devices (such as smartphones, tablets and computers), electric transportation (Electric vehicles) and large-scale energy storage systems (grid) are widely used. It is estimated that the global production of lithium-ion batteries will continue to rise in the next ten years, ranging from 4 times to 10 times (see Figure 1).


  Advances in material properties have increased the specific energy and power transmission capabilities of batteries, so it is hoped that their applications will be further expanded. At the same time, people have realized that in the entire life cycle of lithium-ion batteries from manufacturing to work to resource recovery, we must continue to work hard to improve the safety of LIBs. Thermal runaway (TR) in a single battery and heat transmission between batteries are two potential factors that cause the instability of lithium-ion batteries, which may reduce their thermal safety. TR occurs in a single cell, and may also spread in multiple cells. TR transmission can cause deflagration, rupture and exhaust, causing serious consequences for equipment and users. Battery thermal management is an important aspect to improve the overall safety of the technology. The important goal is to predict, prevent and reduce the two thermal effects of TR in LIBs and TR spread between batteries. However, most battery management systems usually include several thermistors mounted on selected batteries to monitor their surface temperature. This method cannot keep up with the development of energy storage and power transmission capabilities.

  Recently, Professor Rengaswamy Srinivasan (corresponding author) of Johns Hopkins University in the United States gave an overview of the thermal management of lithium-ion batteries, including sensors and methods for directly measuring the internal temperature of the battery. In this review, the author based on the cause analysis and relevant relevant empirical evidence, shows that the thermal runaway in the battery and the heat transmission between the batteries are caused by the adverse changes in the internal physical and chemical properties of the battery. Tracking the changes before and after TR in the battery, successfully modeling and drawing the complex path of TR propagation between batteries. Innovative solutions to prevent TR and heat transmission are being proposed, including a modern battery management system for quickly monitoring the internal conditions of each battery, as well as physical and chemical methods to reduce the harmful effects of rapid heat and material transfer between batteries in the case of TR . Related research results were published on Journal of The Electrochemical Society with the title of "Review-ThermalSafetyManagementinLi-IonBatteries:CurrentIssuesandPerspectives".

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